Site inscription Location date of construction Related era Tchogha Zanbil 1979 Khuzestan Province 1250 BC Elamite Persepolis 1979 Fars Province 5 centuries BC Achaemenid Empire naqsh-e jahan 1979 Isfahan, Isfahan
17th century Safavid dynasty Takht-e Soleyman 2003 West Azerbaijan
4th century Sassanid dynasty Bam and its Cultural Landscape 2004 Kerman Province 6 to 4 centuries BC Achaemenid Empire Pasargadae 2004 Fars Province 5 centuries BC Achaemenid Empire soltaniyeh 2005 Zanjan Province 14th century Bisotun 2006 Kermanshah
6 to 5 centuries BC Achaemenid Empire Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran 2008 West Azerbaijan
4th century Sassanid dynasty Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System 2009 Khuzestan Province 3rd century Sassanid dynasty Sheikh Safi al-din Khānegāh and Shrine Ensemble in Ardabil 2010 Ardabil Province 16th century Safavid dynasty Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex 2010 East Azerbaijan
12th century Safavid dynasty The Persian Garden 2011 Many provinces 6 century BC _ Gonbad-e Qābus 2012 Golestan Province 13th century Ziyarid dynasty Masjed-e Jāmé of Isfahan 2012 Isfahan, Isfahan
8th century Umayyad dynasty Golestan Palace 2013 Tehran 16th century Safavid dynasty Shahr-e Sukhteh 2014 Sistan and Baluchestan
3200 BC Elamite Cultural Landscape of Maymand 2015 Kerman Province 2nd or 3rd century Arsacid era Susa 2015 Khuzestan Province since 6th century BC Elamite, Seleucid
, Parthian, and Sasanian
Lut Desert 2016 Kerman and Sistan
and Baluchestan Provinces
_ _ The Persian Qanat 2016 Many provinces since 3000 years ago _ Historic City of Yazd 2017 Yazd, Yazd Province 4th century Sassanid dynasty The Ensemble of Historical SassanianCities in Fars Province(Bishabpur, Firouzabad, Sarvestan) 2018 Fars Province 5 centuries BC Sassanid dynasty Hyrkanian forests 2019
Chogha Zanbil, an ancient Elamite complex in the Khuzestan province of Iran is one of the few existent ziggurats outside of Mesopotamia and the difference is that the monument in Chogha Zanbil was not constructed by placing one story on top of another. it is located in 45 K.M from east south of “Shoosh”, “haft tape” (seven hills)”.
The historical site was built due to the order of King Untash-Napirisha. Unfortunately, the complex was destroyed during wars and was long buried under the ground. This is the reason for its hill-like shape. it was excavated by a French archaeologist in 1951. The ziggurat of Chogha Zanbil was mainly made of mud-brick; however, blue and green glazed bricks, plaster mortar, glass, and pottery were lavishly used for its decoration. The structure contained a 4-sided square of 105 meters. Such a huge structure!
At first, it was 52 meters high and consisted of 5floors. Now, it is 25 meters high and 2 and a half floors of it have remained. It has got 3 defensive concrete walls around to protect it and the main ziggurat is placed exactly in the center. Also, the water purification system of Choqa Zanbil has been one of the most ancient water supply systems. They collected rainwater in underground pipes and directed to the outside of concrete walls.
the ancient capital of the kings of the Achaemenian dynasty of Persia, located about 70 kilometers (43.5 miles) outside of the modern city of Shiraz of southwestern Iran. The construction began at the site 5 centuries BC under the rule of King Darius the Great and finished by his son Cambyses II and grandson Darius over the course of 150 years. Persepolis consists of several monumental buildings on a vast tow sided stone terrace. The terrace is about 1,475 ft long by 985 ft wide. The staircases are such wide that horses could climb it. It was influenced by architecture from around the world. Tiles were brought from Babylon, precious stones were from India, and also Cedrous wood was brought from Lebanon. You see huge Apadana in front of a vast space or Audience Hall of Darius; in the eastern side of Apadana, there is a throne hall, which has one hundred columns—which was begun by Xerxes and completed by Artaxerxes. Other buildings, including the palaces of Darius and Xerxes and the royal treasury, are located in the southern part. The eastern part of Apadana has been the most wonderful part of Persepolis on which you can see the pictures of representatives from all 28 subordinate nations that were giving gifts from their local region to the kings. To sum up, Persepolis has always been one of the greatest attractions and glories of Iran.
Naghsh-e Jahan Square which means (Design of the world) known as Imam Square, is situated in the heart of Isfahan city. There are also several important sites around the square. Imam Mosque is located right on the south side and on the west side you see Ali Qapu Palace. It is mostly known for its fascinating music hall which can reflect sounds. Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque, a true glory of Islamic architecture is situated on the eastern side of this square. This mosque was built for Shah Abbas, it is considered as a private mosque. It doesn’t have any courtyards. It was damaged in the Qajar era but renovated in the time of pahlavi This mosque is majestic in its own scale and size in the world. The northern part is Qeysarie, where you can enter the Grand Bazar of Isfahan. It had 3 floors in the past but now it only has 2 floors. The third floor was used for playing musical instruments and announcing the time in the day. There are two rows of shops around the square in which you can find Iranian carpets and handicrafts in high quality. There is a blue pool in the middle of the square with beautiful waterspouts that has made an eye-catching view. Naqsh-e Jahan Square is an impressive testimony to the level of social and cultural life in Persia.
Takht-e Soleyman is an area that is about 124000 sq. This archaeological site is in Takab, West Azerbaijan, located 45 km northeast from the city. The name means Solomon’s Throne in Persian. It is also known as ‘Azar Goshnasp’ Fire Temple. It was inscribed as a UNESCO world heritage site in July 2003.
It is the holiest shrine of Zoroastrianism and the former Sassanid Empire. The site itself is the center of several groups of ruins of almost simultaneous occupation, each of which was in some way devoted to Zoroastrian worship. The site is located in a valley about 2000m above sea level. There is an ancient volcano which is called Zendan-e-Soleyman and means ‘The Prison of Solomon’. It is 3 KM far from Takht-e Soleyman. Folk legends say that King Solomon used to imprison monsters inside the 100m deep crater. It has got an amazing landscape.
The city of bam is located in a desert environment in Kerman province. It is considered as a cultural landscape and is inscribed as a world heritage in 2004. It is the biggest castle made of muds in the world. The origins of Bam can be traced back to the Achaemenid period (6th to 4th centuries BC). It is 189 KM far from Kerman. It was at the crossroads of ‘Silk Road’, an important trade route known for the production of silk and cotton garments between the 7th and 11th centuries. It is the largest mud-brick complex of the world, at the heart of which the main Arg (castle) is located as the highest sector.
The last time when Bam was suitable for accommodation goes back to 150 years ago. In that time people left Bam for the garden houses that were out of the city. The whole complex was damaged seriously in the earthquake in 2003 but many countries such as Japan and Italy cooperated in the renovation process.
Pasargadae has been one of the first cities of Achaemenid kingdom, it was the first capital of Achaemenids in the time of great Cyrus, and nowadays it’s the resting place Cyrus the Great (559-530 BCE). Pasargadae remained the Persian capital until Darius founded another in Persepolis. It was inscribed as a world heritage in 2004. the site stands 1,900 meters above sea level. It is 40 KM far from Persepolis.
There are some people saying that Pasargadae resembles a park of 2x3 km in which several monumental buildings were to be seen. It is said to be the first Persian garden with its specified items like having a central pool, it is the middle of two lines in which water is flowing. One of the famous buildings which is said to be in Pasargadae is ‘Bar Aam’ palace. It had big terraces with the view of the garden.
Nowadays nothing much is left from the garden. There some signs like the water routes which could help archeologists resemble the ancient garden and its plan.
The Dome of Soltaniyeh is mostly known for being the biggest brick dome in the world, but it actually is the Mausoleum of Ilkhan Oljaytu. It is located in Soltaniyeh city, 30 KM far from Zanjan city and on the road of Zanjan-Qazvin. It’s an octagonal building and each side is about 80 meters. It’s the 3rd biggest dome in the world. It was inscribed as a UNESCO world heritage in 2005. Soltaniyeh city used to be the capital in the IL khanate dynasty.
The construction began between the years 1302 to 1312 AD, and it is the first dome in Iran which has two shells. Regarding the size of this dome, it’s the biggest sized dome after Florence Cathedral and Hagia Sophia. Unfortunately, lots of exterior decorations are damaged but it is famous for the decorations of inside especially under the main dome with absolute beautiful mosaics.
The exterior view of the dome has been viewed with old scaffoldings for a long time. It is said that they will be replaced by some new modern equipment.
Oljaytu was eager to build a mausoleum for the first Imam of Shiite because of his personal love and respect to him, but in Islam, nobody is permitted to do exhumation. So finally, it was him buried in the Soltaniyeh. Of course, this is just a theory and some researchers disagree with it.
The structure is about 50 meters high and as it seems, it is super heavy! Something about 200 tons! Different parts are joined with wooden beams to reduce the dead load. But the amazing point is that the foundation is only 90 centimeters high! Although the structure has been damaged during years and needs some equipment like scaffolding, it still stands and has resisted against 300 earthquakes since constructions.
is an archaeological site located in Kermanshah province. In the past, it had a unique location in the route which linked Mesopotamian and Iranian merchants. The site has got monuments from Achaemenid, Sassanian, and Ilkhanid periods. The most famous one is the inscription of Achaemenids. 3 languages are used in this inscription: Elamite, Babylonian and Old Persian.
The inscription contains stories of ancient Persia. But there is also a dramatic story behind Bisotun. A man named Farhad fell in love with the ladylove of the king, Shirin. Shirin had told him that she would marry him if he cut away the mountain to find water. He finally kills himself after cutting half of the mountain when he hears about the death of Shirin which was just a rumor made by king Khosrow. It is said that Bisotun is the mountain Farhad tried to cut away.
But, regarding the ancient story of Achaemenids, it is said that after the death of great Cyrus, there was chaos, different people introduced themselves as Cambyses, to reach the throne. When the great Darius realized their plots, he ordered to arrest them all and decided to inscribe the true story on Bisotun. In the bas relief, there is the story of liars and their arrestment and also their punishments. The story was scripted within 2 years.
The other Iranian world heritage is located in northwest Iran, Azerbaijan. It contains 3 Armenian monastic churches named: Qara Kelisa, St. Stepanos Church and Chapel of Dzordzor. These churches are built between the 4th and 14th centuries. These monuments are very impressive and worth seeing at least once. They have visitors from all around the world every year. so, let's take a brief look at them:
- Qara kelisa
It is located in chaldoran town, western Azerbaijan. In Azerbaijani language, Qara means black. And the building includes 2 parts. The white part is new and renovated in the time of Holaku by Khajeh Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi, and the black part (made with black stones) is the older part.
- Stepanos Church
The second church is named after Stephan, the first Christian martyr who was killed by Jews. It is located in Jolfa, eastern Azerbaijan province and is very close to Azerbaijan republication. The date of construction goes back to the 9th century. It was damaged a lot by an earthquake but later was restored in the Safavid era.
- Chapel of Dzordzor
The last and smallest church, designed and built by “Zakaria”, located in Maku, western Azerbaijan. it is said that the church is constructed between the years 1315 and 1324. The material used in this church is stone (in various sizes), like most of the other ones. 30 years ago, the church was transferred to a higher place in order to be protected from heavy rainfall
The Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System is located in Khuzestan province and Zagreus mountains. The first date of construction goes back to Achaemenids in the 5th century BC. The construction process began by king Darius but later it was continued by Sassanid kings and got restored in that time.
The system has different parts and different functions. The incredible fact is that some parts still work!
It actually worked on a large scale and has been a good sample of technology and civil engineering of Iranian in ancient times. It had to support the water supply and mills and irrigation. The different parts are: water mills, dams, tunnels, and canals.
The most important thing the system was designed for, was blocking Gargar to provide water for the people of Shushtar. This system was inscribed as a UNESCO world heritage
Sheikh Safi al-Din is buried in the Khanegah in Ardabil. He was a respected man in Sufi tradition and the founder of Sufism. This place was inscribed in 2010.
The process of erection began in the early 16th century and continued to the 18th century. This place has had different functions such as a library, school, mosque, mausoleum, hospital and …. it had some changes and got bigger in the Safavid era. It can be one of the most beautiful monuments that remained from the Safavid era.
There is a way to the shrine and it has 7 parts. It is related to 7 stages of Sufism. There are also different parts in the complex including the house of martyrs or house of dervishes. They had a special place for anything. One of the interesting parts is chini khane! It means the house of chinaware, where a lot of antique things were kept.
Tabriz was located near the silk road where Iran and so many countries like china could join and commerce. Maybe that is the reason why the biggest roofed bazaar is located in Tabriz. This bazaar has an important religious and economic role in Tabriz and is a great representative of Iranian Islamic architecture. It was built in the 12th century but definitely, the most brilliant time of it was in the Safavid era. There are so many parts and functions such as having 20 sub bazaars, 30 mosques, and 12 schools. There are 5500 stores in this bazar. 40 different products are being sold in Tabriz bazar but undoubtedly the most famous one in the carpet. You can find unique carpets in Tabriz bazar.
With no doubt, Mozzafarieh is the most absorbing sub bazar or Timche among sub bazaars of Tabriz. In addition to the beauty of ceilings and walls, you won’t get tired of watching people sitting around! You also can find extra-ordinary carpets there!
There are lots of world travelers talking about Tabriz bazar. The most popular is Marco polo. You can’t touch and feel the beauty and glory of Tabriz bazar unless you walk through it and feel like walking in the past centuries.
The Persian gardens are 9 gardens inscribed as UNESCO world heritage in 2011. These gardens follow some special rules in designing. It has been started since 6 centuries BC. The first Persian garden was the Pasargadae garden. These days not much of it is left. The basis of these gardens is water, there are also some other elements but the main one is water. The garden is usually divided into 4 parts. This style of designing gardens and architecture has affected designing gardens in other countries such as India. The Persian gardens are: Pasargad Persian Garden at Pasargadae remained from great Cyrus, Chehel Sotun in Isfahan(the monument has 20 columns plus the picture of it in the water where 20 columns appear there, that’s why the name of building means 40 columns), Fin Garden in Kashan(king Abbas founded it in Safavid era near Fin village), Eram Garden in Shiraz, Shazdeh Garden in Mahan(a green garden-like paradise in the middle of desert!), Dolatabad Garden in Yazd(it has got a unique wind tower), Abbasabad Garden in Mazandaran(it is named after king Abbas of Safavid dynasty), Akbarieh Garden in south Khorasan Province(built during Qajar dynasty) and Pahlevanpour Garden.
The tallest brick tower in the world, Gonbade Qabus tower is located in Gonbade Qabus city in Golestan province. The first and earliest tower made of fired brick was inscribed as UNESCO world heritage in 2012. This place is the tomb of Qabus Ibn Voshmgir, the king of Ziyarids. It is actually built in the 13th century and shows us the progress in the technology of the people of that time.
The tower is 53 meters high and all made of brick. The plan is like a stellar and the most top part (ceiling) is conical.
The tower is the only thing that remained from the previous, historic city, Jorjan. The city was totally destroyed when Mongols attacked Iran and just the tower remained, though it got damaged, it was restored later.
Some researchers say that the idea that says the tower is the grave of the king is not true, because they couldn’t find any corpse inside the tower!
Masjed-e Jāmé of Isfahan or Jame mosque of Isfahan, better known as the museum of history and architecture of Iran was inscribed in 2012. The construction process began in the 8th century and continued until the 20th century. It is located in the heart of Isfahan in the old quarter near Isfahan bazaar. People also call it “Friday mosque”. Every detail and decorations are added during different times in 12 centuries and different eras including Abbasid, Buyid, Seljuq, Ilkhanid, Muzzafarid, Timurid and Safavid.
One of the most important figures of this mosque is its four iwans(iwan is a kind of big terrace in a mosque) that are around a central yard. The decorations are also very interesting, for example, there is a hall with a hundred vaults, each one is different from the other and you can’t find two of one style.
Finally, you have to visit the Jame mosque of Isfahan to feel it and see a different kind of Iranian architecture that has grown and got completed as time passed. No words can describe it.
Golestan Palace is a monument that remained from Safavid and Qajar dynasty. Karim khan Zand restored it later after its construction in the Safavid era. It is located exactly in the heart of Tehran, near the grand bazaar of Tehran and was inscribed as a world heritage in 2013. It became the loyal place of Qajar kings when Agha Mohamad Khan chose Tehran as the capital city. Later Pahlavi dynasty constructed a new palace for themselves in Niavaran, but still, the important political ceremonies were held in Golestan palace.
There are 17 different parts in this palace, such as small palaces and museums, mostly been constructed during 200 years. Golestan means a garden full of flowers and it is matched with the landscape. One of the most beautiful parts is the marble throne which is located exactly in front of the entrance, you have to cross a pool to reach it. Golestan Palace is also famous for its beautiful and colorful mosaics tiles, a composition of blue, yellow and pink. Also, the tomb of Karim khan is located near the marble throne.
The Palace of Shams or Shams-ol-emare which is the symbol of a modern and high building in Tehran is inside this complex. Another interesting point is that the hall of mirrors is the place where Reza Shah and his son have coronated.
The ancient signs of existence of humans are founded in the burnt city or Shahr-e Sukhteh in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran. it dates back to the time of Elimate, something about 3000 BC. It was inscribed in 2014.
Several valuable things are founded there which are kept in museums right now. The most famous is the pottery vessel with a drawing of a goat on it. It is like an animation! You may ask how? There are several pictures of a goat on the pottery vessel in different positions. If you turn it around itself you feel the goat is running. Amazing, isn’t it? Archaeologists didn’t know about it till Dr.Mansur Sadjadi discovered it recently.
One of the other things is an artificial eye! Archaeologists found a skeleton of a woman with an artificial eye which belonged to 4000 years ago, Unbelievable!
There are a lot of things to wonder! However, nobody still doesn’t know about the reason why the city fell down.
Maymand is a historical site, inscribed in 2015, is one of the first habitats of human in Iran. It is in Kerman province and near Shahr-r-Babak. it dates back to 2 or 3 centuries B.C. Maymand is a stone village, it’s artificial and hand-caves. People live in rocky holes inside the mountain. The interesting point is that it still has inhabitants and people have saved the natural form of the village since the past times.
Despite the hardness and limits of the space, there are several different places such as a mosque, school, and the houses.
The rooms somehow look like each other but the little difference is in the number of rooms. The houses are very cute, they are usually called “Kicheh”. They have something like a warehouse in their houses, they call it “Pastoo”. It means the place in the back and usually covered.
In 2015, the ancient city of Susa was inscribed as a UNESCO world heritage, it happened after 2014, when some experts came to visit Susa, to see if they are going to add it to the UNESCO world heritage list.
the city is about 7000 years old, the original time goes back to 4200 B.C. It is one of the most ancient cities in the world. you may have different feelings when you get to the city. The feeling is a combination of mystery and history!
It is said that Susa was one of the administrative cities of the Achaemenid dynasty and also the capital city of Babylonian. Its location is also very good. Susa is located in the southwest of Iran in Khuzestan province, in the Zagros mountains. It is also close to the Tigris river. It was a religious center and also a commerce center due to its good position in ancient Persia including Parthian, Achaemenid and … and even in Mesopotamia. The incredible fact is that Susa has been one of the cities that has inhabitants since ancient times continuously. This city is worth seeing and no one can understand its beauty before visiting that. There are also some other world heritages near this ancient city like the hydraulic system and Chogha Zanbil.
The Lut desert in Iran, located in two provinces of Kerman and Sistan & Baloochestan was inscribed as a world heritage by UNESCO in 2016. The name “Lut” comes from the name of prophet Lut. His name is also in the bible.
Lut desert is known as the hottest surface on the world. The temperature in some places goes up to 70 degrees. You can even cook an egg on the stone in a natural condition. It is in rain shadow and has high temperature and in some parts of this region, there’s no chance to live, even for bacteria. Dark-colored lands and pebbles can be the main reason for its high temperature.
But despite all this hard condition, it has a unique ecosystem. Some researchers think that they should not put time on studying ecosystems of deserts, but still, special insects and foxes are living in the desert.
Lut desert is divided into 3 different parts; south Lut, central Lut, and north Lut. The best and the most beautiful yardangs are located in central Lut. (yardangs are streamlined hills, carved from bedrocks and they are formed by wind erosion)
One of the special trees which grows and lives in deserts of Iran is Gaz, the original name is Tamarix and it has a good resistance against lack of water. It is a maximum 15 meters high and has a special sap, women of the near towns use the sap as natural sugar. Gaz can protect the people and villages against storms.
Persian qanat is a collection of tunnels, working on an engineering basis and remained from ancient Persia. The qanats are remained from 3000 years ago. It is inscribed in UNESCO in 2016 and located in many provinces as there are 11 qanats in this collection.
Qanats are usually used in arid areas. In these areas, water is an important element and people of ancient times had designed and used some genius technology to save and use water correctly. The system works this way: there is a horizontal tunnel line under the ground, it carries and brings water from mountains or inner layers of the ground to the top surface. The slope and length of these tunnels are so important and just qanat experts know that after years of working on them. There may also be some sub tunnels. Some of these qanats still work and some are dry right now. They could provide water for the villages in the deserts. There are eleven qanats in UNESCO inscription:
In Khorasan province:
- Qasabeh Qanat in Gonabad city, Khorasan Razavi province
- Baladeh Qanat in Ferdows city, South Khorasan province
In Kerman province:
- Goharriz Qanat in Jupar city, Kerman province
- Akbar Abad Qanat in Baravat, Bam county, Kerman province
- Qasem Abad Qanat in Baravat, Bam county, Kerman province
In Isfahan province:
- Vazvan Qanat in Vazvan city, Isfahan province
- Moon Qanat in Ardestan city, Isfahan province
In Yazd province:
- Hasan Abad Qanat in Mehriz city, Yazd province
- Zarch Qanat in Yazd city, Yazd province
In Markazi province:
- Ebrahim Abad Qanat in Arak city, Markazi province
There is a lot to say about the historic city of Yazd, but as a short review, Yazd is located in Yazd province in the heart of Iran in an arid climate. It was the capital city during Atabakan and Mozaffarid dynasties in 14th Century AD. But this is not the reason for its fame. Yazd had a great location near the silk road. So, it just improved, especially in architecture and urban designing.
The historic city of Yazd is known as the biggest city in the world made of mud and the second ancient city of the world. All you see in Yazd is made of sun-dried bricks.
There a lot of tourist attractions in Yazd such as historic houses, mosques, schools, temples, baths, museums, etc. each one gives you a different feeling. Alleys are shaped naturally and feel like walking in the past.
In Yazd, you should test some foods. A soup-like and light meal usually for breakfast made with lentils and called Adasi, really is worth testing once. Iranian kebab is really popular, and lamb liver kebab is no more exception. You can find it in Yazd. The most famous and I guess the delicious one is Yazdi Faloudeh. I strongly recommend it to everyone who likes sweet foods.
The Sassanid archeological landscape is a UNESCO world heritage, located in Fars province and inscribed very recently, in 2018. It contains 3 main castles and other monuments around them: Bishapur palace, Sarvestan palace, and Firozabad palace. The first time of construction is estimated to be around the 5th century.
Firozabad city was damaged a lot after Arab invasions. Ardeshir, the founder of the Sassanid dynasty decided to build the palace. There is also a 10-meter defensive wall made if mud around the city. It's 111 kilometers far from shiraz and very close to some other ancient sites such as the bas relief in which you can see the story of Ardeshir Babakan's story of victory.
Bishapur city, 23 kilometers far from Shiraz, is one of the most brilliant monuments that remained from the Sassanid era. It is said that the city had some 50-80 thousand habitants. This city was built by Shapur as it is clear by the name of the city. In that time, there were a big number of Roman prisoners due to the victory of Sassanids in war. It is said that the prisoners, Iranian and Roman have built the palace together, that's why the architectural style of the Bishapur palace is similar to Roman style. The city had 2 main streets which divided it into 4 parts. There are several parts in the city like Anahita temple and the palace, and of course, the incredible part is the Evan-e-mosaic. The mosaics of this hall are extraordinary in design and color.
Sarvestan palace is 85 kilometers far from shiraz. Bahram Gur ordered to build it in the late Sassanid era. It is designed and built for the kings to stay and rest while hunting. The palace has 3 terraces, the main material used in this building is stone and the dome is made of brick. The dome is the oldest brick dome in Iran. Researchers believe that the dome of Sarvestan palace was built by new and modern techniques.
The history of these ancient forests dates back to 25 to 50 million years ago.
These Hyrkanian forests cover 530 miles near the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, extending from south-eastern Azerbaijan, eastward to Golestan province in the north of Iran.
According to UNESCO reports, their floristic biodiversity is remarkable. Hyrkanian forests are home to 150 native trees and bushes, 180 species of birds and 58 species of mammals, including, brown bears, lynx, iconic Persian leopard(which is in danger of distinction) , etc.
Recently Iran’s Hyrkanian forests have been registered on National Heritage List, due to their old age and unique richness of biological diversity which will open a new horizon that will result in high-level protection for forests and a new perspective for the tourism industry.